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歐洲文化強國如何由衰及興

作者:柚木家具 日期:2016-06-08 閱讀:  次瀏覽

zaishijielishishang,wenyifuxing(1350-1650)shiouzhouyoushuaijixingdezhuanzhedian。wanchengzheyizhuanzhedezhongyaoqiantishiwenhuazhuanxinghetichangchuangxin。zhengyinweizhuazhule“wenhuaqiangguo”zheyizhongyaodezhanlvexingdiaozheng,ouzhoujinruleshehuifazhandekuaisuqi。fansiwenhuaqiangguodeouzhoujingyan,youzhuyuwomenlijiewenhuazaituidongshehuifazhanzhongdezhongyaozuoyong。

duiouzhouweijideshenkerenshi

wenyifuxingyici,yuanyishizaishengdeyisi。zheguanxidaoouzhoudeweijiyuzhengjiu,henyoubiyaocongweijijiaodulaizhongxinyanjiuzhechangyundong。weijilaiziyulianggefangmian:ziranzaihaihefengjianzhidubengkuishidaozhideshehuizhixuwenluan。baofayu1348niandeheisibingshiouzhouzuidadeyicishuyi,yihouyoulianxufashengguohenduoci。tazaochengdehouguoshiouzhouderenkoujianshaolewufenzhiershenzhigengduo,daozhiletudipaohuang、wujiadongdang、laodonglibuzu、shehuiwenluan、qingxubeiguandengyixiliewenti。heisibingguohou,fengjianzhuyiyeshuaituile,jie、zhanzheng、pinqiong、fubai、yumeichengweipubiandeshehuixianxiang。weijidaozhilezhishifenzidejuexing。danding、bitelake、bojiaqiu、da·fenqidengrenkaishifenxiweijideshencengyuanyin。

tamenfaxian,zhongshijiwenhuabingbuwanshan,cunzaizhuzhishibuqueding、bushiyong、bugouyongdequexian。youyuzhongshijidezhishifenzizhuyaoyouzhiyerenshiheshenzhirenyuangoucheng,yinci,tamenyunyongdeshijingyanerbushishiyan,yanjiudeshibiandexuewenerbushijingshizhiyongdexuewen。gengweizhongyaodeshi,tamendezhishixiangdanglingsui,buzuyichengdanqiguanjianshikexunfuweijideshiming。ruhejianliqikexue、shiyongdezhishitixi,bingqiegenjushehuidexuyaobazhishizhuanbianchengtuidongshehuijinbudeliliang,shiyigejianjuderenwu。

zaijingjifangmian,zaizhongshijijingjitizhixia,cunzaizhushengchanziliaodesuoyouquan、zhanyouquanheshiyongquansanzhefenlidequexian。ciwai,nongnuzhiduxianzhilelaodongzhedeshengchanjijixing。tamentichanggaibianjingjiguanlitizhi、fazhanshichangjingjiheshangpinshengchan、gaibianouzhoujipinjiruodejumian。

wenhuafangmian,tamenzhuyidaolewenhuazhenghedezhongyaoxing,youqishiconggudaixila、luomadewenhuaguibao——zhengzhi、wenxue、xiuci、zirankexue、yishuhemeixuezhongjiquyingyang。zaicijichushangtamennulichuangxin,shixianlecongrenwenzhuyidaorenbenzhuyidezhuanbian。shenxueyishixingtaiwajiele,xinshidejindaijiaoyuxingqi,rendezunyanherendejiazhibeifaxianle。

zaizhengzhiweijidebeihou,tamenkandaolezhishidequexianhedaodedelunluo。luohoudefengjianzhidugenbenwufadanfujiuzhushehuidexingzhengzhize;wuzhi、yumeishirendaodelunsang,ertanlan、jidu、zisiyoudaozhileshehuifenli。shehuizhixuwenluanjiajulerenmindetongku,fengjianguizudeqiaoquhaoduogengshibarenmintuixiangkunandeshenyuan。

ouzhouwenhuaxingguozhanlvedezhongdian:kexue、daode、qinmin

mianduiouzhoudeshuairuohepubianweiji,weiyoujianlishiyingshishidejingshizhiyongdewenhua,caishiouzhoufuxingdeyouxiaotujing。zheyang,yaoheping,buyaozhanzheng;yaozhixu,buyaowenluan;yaofengyu,buyaojie;yaowenhua,buyaoyumei;yaomeide,buyaofubai,chengweidangshixianjinzhishifenzidegongshihezhenxingouzhoudegangling。biaoxianzai:

jianlikexuedezhishitixihexizhidexuekefenlei,shizhishibiandekekao、youyong、qianyan。zhishidekekaoxingjiushijianliqizhishidekexuetixi,yongkexueshiyanduizhishijinxingyanzheng。wenyifuxingshiqiouzhouchanshenglexizhidexuekefenlei,bingqieyongshiyanshouduanlaitidaijingyanshouduan。qianyizhongnulidaozhilexuekedefenleihejindaizirankexuededansheng;houyizhongnulizedaozhilezhongduodekexuefaxian,bingqiebayanjiubiandexuewenzhuanbianchengyanjiushehuixuyaodexuewen。

jianlijuyouyouxiuwenhuajingshenneihandedaodetixi。zaidandingde《shenqu》zhong,liejuchulerenleisuofanxiadezhongduozuixing。《shenqu·diyu》pianzhong,dandingbarendezuixingfenweibunengjiezhidezui、qiangbaozui、qizhazui、pannizuisizhong。yucitongshi,dandingtichulerenaihedezhideyuanze。renaikeyihuaweigezhongmeide,bujinbaokuogerenpinxingshangdemeide,ruzhihui、qianxun、jianyuedeng,huanbaokuoyizhonggonggongdemeide,jirenmindegongtongliyi,yijiheping、gongzheng、fengxianheziyou。zaidandingneili,zhezhongguanxishiyirenaiheshanxinweitezhengde。tazhichu,zhiyaoshandepinzhichuandaorenjian,shijiejiuhuifashengbianhua。

guanzhuminshengwenti,gaibianjipinjiruodejumian,biaoxianzaibitelakeduiyumeidedezhongxinjieshishang。zaizhipaduowatongzhizhekafalanxisikedexin(changbeijinrenguanmingwei《luntongzhizheyingdangruhelaitongzhi》)zhong,tabiaodalezijiguanyumeidedelinian:diyi,weihushehuideanning,bujinxuyaoyoutongzhifangmiandenenggan、chengshu,huanyaoyouyingfujubiandejizhi;dier,fuzudejingjishili,yaorangguokucongjuechizibianchengjueyingyu;disan,qinmin,bujiaoaoqingman。tongzhizhecongburangzijijiaosheyinyi,yebuxiangshouxiansanzhile,zhishijingjingyeyeditongzhi,ersuoyourendourenweitapingheerburuanruo,weiyanerbuaoman;disi,busuibianfadongzhanzheng,rangrenliuxue;diwu,tongzhizhexuyaozhengzhizhihui;diliu,jiejueqiongrendechifanwentishizhenzhengdezhengzhimeide:“yigeminzuzhisuoyibinlinjuewang,changchangshiyinweishiwukuifa,erfeiquefameide。yinci,meigeguojiadexingfugengduodishiyoushentierbushijingshendekanglesuozuchengde。”

duiouzhouwenhuaxingguodejidianfansi

ouzhouziwenyifuxing,zoushangleyitiaowenhuaqiangguodedaolu。wenhuabujinchengweizhengzhi、shehui、jingjifazhandejichu,erqieyechengweizhijietuidongshehuifazhandeyuandongli。keyishuo,wenhuafazhanshiouzhoucongchuantongshehuixiangxiandaishehuizhuanxingdezhenzhengganggan。weici,bujinxuyaowomenzailinianshangmingquewenhuashilidezhongyaoneihan,erqiehuanxuyaopouxiouzhoudejingyanhecelve,shiwenhuaqiangguochaozhugengdaguimohegengshengaigedefangmianjinxing。

diyi,baizhengjichenghefazhandeguanxi,yifazhanweizhu。zhongguoxuezhexufanchengzai《xilagudianzhongwen》zhongyan:shisan、shisishijideyidaliwenyifuxingyundong,qishi“weichang‘fu’chugudaiwenhuadaoshenmedibu”。danshi,“tadeguangming,zhishaotouguoletayiqianyiqiannian。”xuxianshengdeguannianzhongyouliangzhongbixujiayizhongshideqingxiang:yizhongshiwenyifuxingyunhanzhudefeifandechuangzaoli,biaoxianzaishige、huihua、diaoke、jianzhu、zhengzhi、xiju、wudaofangmianwukebinidechuangzaoxing,juefeizhishiduigudianzuopinyibenzhengjingdijulimofang;yizhongshitazishenxinxiandeziyoutihuannengli,jiyizhongfuyubianhuadeshouduan,rang300yuniandewenhuayundong“liushuibufu,hushubudu”。huanyanzhi,zhengshizhezhong“fuyubaoyundebianhua”,shiwenyifuxingdewenhuadeyibuduantisheng,yizhiyutadechuanqichangchangteqiqifeng,buduandansheng“youyiweidexindongxi”。

dier,baizhengjichuyanjiuyuyingyongyanjiudeguanxi,liangzhehudong,cuchengwenhuaqiangguodeliliang。jichuyanjiuyuyingyongyanjiuxiangjiehe,shiziwenyifuxingyilaixiandaiwenhuafazhandeyizhongqushi。wenhuayaozaizhengzhi、jingji、wenxue、yishu、zongjiaogegelingyuzhongfahuizuoyong,danyeyaojiecilaitishengyigeguojiaderuanshili,zhijiefuwuyushehuidezhengzhiyujingji。zaiwomenguojia,wenhuayanjiushangkeyifenweiliangzhongleixing:jichuyanjiuhejueceyanjiu。zheliangzhongyanjiudouhenyouchengji,dandouxuyaojiaqiang。jichuyanjiubunengtuolishiji;erjueceyanjiu,yidingyaoyujichuyanjiuxiangjiehe,yiqijinyibushenru。zheli,guanjianyaosujiushiyaojianliyigeduijichuyanjiujinxingzaiyanjiudejigou,congerbajueceyanjiutongjichuyanjiujieheqilai,tishengjichuyanjiuhejueceyanjiudezhiliang。liru:guominxingyanjiujiujishiyizhongjichuyanjiuyeshiyizhongjueceyanjiu。zhengfuzaijinxingjueceshiyinggaikaolvshijiegegeminzudelishiwenhuachuantongheguominxing,yaosheliyanjiuguominxingdezhuanmenjigou。 ruguobuzhuzhong,jiuhuichuxianyibayaochikaihenduobasuodexianxiang,erzhengquedezuofa,yingdangshiyibayaochikaiyibasuo。

disan,pipanyuchuangzaoxiangjiehe,gengjiazhongshichuangzao。wenhuadefazhan,yikaoduijiuwenhuadeyangqihexinwenhuadechuangzao。ouzhoudejingyanzaiyugengjiazhuzhongchuangxin,shiqiweitaotaijiuwenhuazhongdezaopodeshouduan。xinyujiu、meiyuchou、haoyuhuai,qishidoushitongguobijiaolaiquelide。renwenzhuyizheyishoujuzhufuxinggudianyouxiuwenhuadedaqi,yishouzedalichuangzaoxindeyouxiuwenhua。liangzhexiangjiehe,zaiyouxiudewenhuachanpinmianqian,neixiecubide、cucaodeshiwudangranjiuyuanxingbilu,quyutaotai。xiangfan,ruguobazhuyilidezhongdianjinjinfangzaipipanjiushiwushangerbuzhuzhongchuangxin,zebunenghuoderucixiaoguo。

yingdangshuo,wenhuaqiangguozhengshishunyinglerenzhuiqiuwenhua、zhuiqiumeidetianxing。wenyifuxingshiqiderenwenzhuyizhezhengshicongrendetianxingchufalaigaibianren、gaibianshehuide。tianxingshirenxiangwangmeihaoshiwudeyizhongxinlihuodong。zhuguangqianxianshengyouyan:“shijianshiwuyouzhenshanmeisanzhongbutongdejiazhi,renleixinliyouzhiqingyisanzhongbutongdehuodong。zhesanzhongxinlihuodongqiahesanzhongshiwujiazhixiangdang:zhenguanyuzhi,shanguanyuyi,meiguanyuqing……renshenglaijiuyouzhenshanmeidexuyao,zhenshanmeijubei,renshengcaiwanmei。”zheduanhua,yexuzhengqiaruqifendibiaodachuleyouxiuzhishifenziqitutongguowenhuagaizaoshehuidejituoyaoshendeyuanwang。

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